The American artist Sturtevant (1924, Lakewood, Ohio – 2014, Paris) is best known for her repetitions of the works of other artists, which she recreated manually from memory after having seen a piece that intrigued her. These can immediately be identified with the original, but they are not copies. Her aim was not to achieve an exact replica, but rather to address notions of authorship, authenticity and originality that would later come to the fore in our own digital age, characterised by the endless circulation and recombination of images.


Sturtevant’s first exhibition, held in 1965 at the Bianchini Gallery, New York, featured her versions of Andy Warhol’s silkscreened flowers, with her Jasper Johns flag, Frank Stella concentric square, Claes Oldenburg garment and other paintings suspended on a clothes rack. The relationship between repetition and difference, as articulated in Gilles Deleuze’s seminal philosophical text, was central to her practice. Before it became available in English translation, Sturtevant read Différence et répétition, 1968, in the original French with the aid of a dictionary. The disparities between the versions encourage the viewer to look beyond their surface similarities to what Sturtevant termed the ‘under-structure of art’. She achieved these crucial differences by working ‘predominantly from memory, using the same techniques, making the same errors and thus coming out in the same place’. When Warhol was asked how he made his work he replied: ‘Ask Elaine [Sturtevant]’.


The artists with whose work she engaged include her contemporaries in American Pop – Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, James Rosenquist, Andy Warhol and Tom Wesselmann – as well as Marcel Duchamp, Joseph Beuys, Frank Stella, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Keith Haring and Anselm Kiefer, amongst others. Sturtevant worked across media, ranging from painting and sculpture to photography, wallpaper and, from 2000 onwards, video works that combined advertising and internet images with her own film material. These later video works turn a critical gaze on today’s image-saturated media culture, creating repetition of a different kind on a continuous loop. 


Sturtevant was awarded the Golden Lion for lifetime achievement at the 54th Venice Biennale in 2011, and her pioneering work has been featured in numerous exhibitions, including at The Museum of Modern Art, New York (2014); Serpentine Galleries, London (2013); Kunsthalle, Zurich (2012); Moderna Museet, Stockholm (2012); Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (2010) and the Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt am Main (2004).



College Art Association, for the exhibition at Gavin Brown’s enterprise, “Rock & Rap /c Simulacra.”, New York

Kurt Schwitters Prize for Lifetime Achievement, Sprengel Museum Hannover



Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement, Venice Biennale



Greenburger Award, New Museum (New York)



Beaux-arts Magazine Award, best internationa exhibition (Paris)



Beaux-arts Award : best international exhibition : "Sturtevant: The

Brutal Truth", Museum of Modern Art (Frankfort)



Art Award : best exhibition of the year (Paris)

Solo exhibitions


Sturtevant, Peder Lund, Oslo, Norway

Ça va aller, Air de Paris, Romainville, France



Bethlehem Hospital, Gavin Brown's Enterprise, New York, USA

Sturtevant: MEMES, Freedman Fitzpatrick Gallery, Los Angeles, USA


I Am Never Am the Other, Power Station, Dallas, TX, USA

Vice Versa, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, London, UK



Undeniable Allusion, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

Sturtevant, Gavin Brown's enterprise, New York, USA



Drawings: 1964-1994, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

Gober Partially Buried Sinks, Gavin Brown’s enterprise, Sant’Andrea de Scaphis, Rome, Italy

KILL STUPIDITY, Air de Paris, Paris, France



The House of Horrors (le Train fantôme), Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, France

Sturtevant Sturtevant, Madre, Napoli, Italy

Drawing Double Reversal, Albertina, Vienna, Austria

Drawing Double Reversal, Nationalgalerie im Hamburger Bahnhof-Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin, Germany

Double Trouble, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California, USA



Reloaded, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris , France

Drawing Double Reversal, Museum fur Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Double Trouble, MoMA, The Museum of modern Art, New York, NY, USA

Number eight: Sturtevant, Julia Stoschek Foundation, Düsseldorf, Germany

Number eight : Sturtevant, Julia Stoschek Foundation, 



Leaps Jumps and Bumps, Serpentine Gallery, London, Uk

House of Horrors, Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hannover, Germany

Finite / Infinite, Gavin Brown’s enterprise, Los Angeles, USA



Image over Image, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

Rock and Rap /C Simulacra, Gavin Brown’s enterprise, New York, USA

L’abécédaire de Deleuze, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

Image over Image, Kunsthalle Zurich, Switzerland



In Praise of Doubt, Punta della Dogana, Venice, Italy

Italian Pavillon of Venice Biennale (awarded the GOLDEN LION for Lifetime Achievement)



The Razzle Dazzle of Thinking, Musée d'Art Moderne de la ville de Paris, Paris, France

Vertical Nomad, Galerie Neu, Berlin, Germany

Elastic Tango, Anthony Reynolds Gallery, London, UK



Blow Job, Air de Paris, Paris, France



Vertical Monad, Anthony Reynolds Gallery, London, UK

Sturtevant, Le Consortium, Dijon, France



Raw Power, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

RE-Run, Galerie Mezzanin, Vienna, Austria



Cold Fear, Anthony Reynolds Gallery, London, UK

Dillinger Running Series, Site Galerie, Düsseldorf, Germany

Digital Click, Art Unlimited, Basel, Switzerland



The Brutal Truth, MIT List, Cambridge, MA, USA

Push and Shove, Perry Rubenstein Gallery, New York, USA



The Brutal Truth, Museum fur Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany

Perry Rubenstein Gallery, New York, USA



The Dark Threat of Absence, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

Galerie Mezzanin, Vienna, Austria

The Sixties. Lichentenstein, Warhol, Wesselmann, Rosenquist, Galerie Daniel Blau, Berlin, Germany



Shifting Mental Structures, Neuer Berliner Kunstverein, Berlin, Germany

Sturtevant. Work on paper 1965/66/69, Galerie Daniel Blau, Munich, Germany

I love Arlette, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France



Dillinger Running Series, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

Ça va aller, Galerie Hans Mayer, Berlin, Germany



Copy without Origins : self as disappearance, École Régionale des Beaux-arts de Nantes, Nantes, France



Duchamp 1200 Coal Bags, MAMCO, Genève, Switzerland

Sturtevant. 1225 Objects, Casino Luxembourg, Forum d'Art Contemporain, Luxembourg



Int./Ext. Visibilities, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France

Ça va aller, Air de Paris, Paris, France



Galerie Six Friedrich, Munich, Germany



Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts, Le Mans, France



Powerful Reversals, Galerie Hans Mayer, Düsseldorf, Germany



Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France



Villa Arson, Nice, Musée d'Art Contemporain

Stux Gallery New York, USA

Galerie Hans Mayer, Dusseldorf, Germany



Sturtevant (touring exhibition), Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart, Germany

Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany



Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris (catalogue)



Rhona Hoffman Gallery, Chicago



Sturtevant. Werke aus 25 Jahren, Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne, Germany

Art Basel 89, Galerie Six Friedrich, Munich, Germany



Drawing 1988-65, Bess Cutler Gallery, New York, USA



Daniel Weinberg Gallery, Los Angeles, USA

Stux Gallery, New York, USA



White Columns, New York, USA



Onnasch Gallery, New York, USA



Sturtevant. Studies done for Beuys' Action and objects, Duchamps' etc. Including film, Everson Museum, Syracuse, New York, USA



Sturtevant. Studies done for Beuys' Action objects and drawing, Reese Palley Gallery, New York, USA



Sturtevant. Huit Tableaux et un Prototype, Galerie Claude Givaudan, Paris, France



Sturtevant. Huit Tableaux et un Prototype, Galerie Claude Givaudan, Paris, France



The Store of Claes Oldenburg, 623 East, New York, USA

Relâche, School of Visual Art, New York, USA



America America, Galerie J, Paris, France



Bianchini Gallery, New York, USA


Group exhibitions


She-Bam Pow POP Wizz ! Les Amazones du POP, MAMAC, Nice, France

No Dandy, No Fun, Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland

Retail apocalypse, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Risquons-tout, WIELS, Forest, Belgium

Stop Painting, Fondazione Prada, Venezia, Italy



Straying from the line, Schinkel Pavillon, Berlin, Germany

Luogo e segni, Punta della dogana, Venice, Italy

Ikonen, Kunsthalle Bremen, Germany

More, Air de Paris, Romainville, France

Food, Yoshii Gallery, New York, USA

Just what is it that makes today so different, so appealing?Gavin Brown's Enterprise, Galerie Patrick Seguin, Paris, France



DRAG: Self-portrait and Body Politics, Hayward Gallery, Southbank Centre, London, UK

Fake as More, Simon Lee Gallery, New York, USA

33a Bienal de São Paulo, Fundação Bienal de São Paulo Pavilhão Ciccillo Matarazzo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Art & Entertainment, MAMCO, Geneva, Switzerland

Faithless Pictures, National Museum of Norway, Oslo, Norway


Robert Rauschenberg: Among Friends, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NYC, USA

I am a Problem, Museum fur Moderne Kunst, Frankfut am Main, Germany

The Everywhere Studio, The Institute of Contemporary Art, Miami, USA

If Not Apollo, the Breeze, Kadist, San Francisco, USA 

Sturtevant and the Salon Pour Rire, Chewday's, London, UK

Screen Memory, Simon Lee Gallery, London, UK



Life Itself, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

Foot Foraine, Grande Halle La Villette, Paris, France

Ordinary Pictures, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, USA

Images, Fridericianum, Kassel, Germany



Space Age, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Pantin, France

The Great Mother, Fondazione Nicola Trussardi – Palazzo Reale, Milan, Italy

The Shell, Almine Rech Gallery, Paris, France

Open Source: Art at the eclypse of capitalism, Galerie Max Hetzler, Berlin, Germany



In These Great Times, Kunsternes Hus, Oslo and Charlottenborg, Copenhagen, Denmark

69 / 96., The Gebert Foundation, Rapperswil, Switzerland



second reflection / symmetrical contents STURTEVANT and SECONDEDITIONS, Chelsea Space, London, UK

Des images comme des oiseaux, La Friche Belle de Mai, Marseille, France

Pop Art Design, Barbican Art Gallery, London, UK

Virginia Dwan, Filmaker, Videographer, and film Producer, The Emily Harvey Foundation, New York City, USA

Ausweitung der Kampfzone. Die Sammlung. 1968-2000, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany



Henry Moore Institute, Leeds. UK

Sinister Pop, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA



ILLUMInazioni – ILLUMInations, 54th International Art Exhibition, Venice, Italy

Eloge du doute, Punta della Dogana, Venice, Italy

The personal is Political : Women artists from the collection, MOCA, Los Angeles, USA

Role Models and Role Playing, Museum of Modern Art, Salzburg, Austria



Seconde main, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, France

Pop Life, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany



Die Kunst ist Super !, Hamburger Bahnhof, Berlin, Germany

The Quick and The Dead, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, USA

Pop Life, Tate Modern, London, UK

Hayward Gallery, London, UK

VOID, George Pompidou, Paris, France

The Danish and The Nordic Pavilions – La Biennale di Venezia, Venice, Italy



Set 5, Fotomuseum Winterthur, Zurich, Switzerland

Galerie Mehdi Chouakri, Berlin, Germany

The archer and the Goat, Anthony Reynolds Gallery, London, UK

Exposing Flesh, III CCS Bard, New York, USA



Début de siècle, Musée départemental d'Art Contemporain de Rochechouart, Rochechouart, France

it (is not) a fake, Galerie Sho Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Wack ! Art and the feminist revolution, MOCA, Los Angeles, USA

Ten Curators, Colette, Paris, France

Good Morning Midnight, Casey Kaplan Gallery, New York, USA

Steven Parrino - La Marque, Noire, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France

Group Show, Anthony Reynolds Gallery, London, UK



Twice Drawn, Tang Museum, Saragota Springs, NY, USA

Air de Paris, Paris, France

PS1, New York, USA

Whitney Bienniail, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA

MMK, Frankfurt, Germany



De Singel, Antwerp, Belgium

Galerie Mezzanin, Vienna, Austria

Mamco, Geneve, Switzerland

Joy, Casino Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Kunstforum, Vienna, Austria

Kunsthalle Vienna, Austria

Frieze, London, Gallery A.R



20 Jahre, 20 Years, 1984-200, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg, Austria

Besides, popularity is a rather lumpy concept, no?, Kunthalle Dusseldorf, Germany

About Painting, Tang Museum,New York, USA

Frac Paca, Marseille, France

Before the End, Le Consortium, Dijon, France

Paris Photo, Paris, France



Aftershock, Dickinson Roundell, New York, USA

Das Lebendige Musuem, Museum fur Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany

University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK

Ishtar, Gallery Midway, St. Paul

The Daimler Chrysler Collection, Museum fur Modern Kunst, Karlsruhe, Germany

Influence, Anxiety and Gratitude, List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge, UK

Une Collection de 'Chefs d'oeuvre' - emprunts, pastiches, copies, citations et interprétations, Frac Limousin, Limoges, France

Living with Duchamps, Tang Museum, New York, USA

Re-Production 2, Georg Kargl Fine Arts, Vienna, Austria

Un tableau dans le décor, Peintures 1970-2000, Musée des Ducs de Bretagne, Nantes, France

Paris Photo, Paris

Site, Düsseldorf, Germany



Virement 2002, MAMCO, Geneva, Switzerland

Paris Photo, Paris, France

Pace/Macgill Gallery, New York, USA

Nederlande Foto Institut, Rotterdam, Netherlands

Manifeste oder Ergriffenheit- Was ist das, Galerie Daniel Blau, Munich, Germany

Minimalism and After, DaimlerChrysler Contemporary, Berlin, Germany

Iconoclash. Jenseits der Bilderkriege in Wissenschalft, Religion und Kunst, ZKM Karlsruhe, Germany

Min Marilyn, Lijevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, sweden

Art After Art, Neues Museum Weserburg, Bremen, Germany

Private/Corporate : A Dialogue, Haus Huth, Berlin, Germany

Kunst nach Kunst, Neues Museum Werserburg, Bremen, Germany



Répertoire (Replay) 'Oh cet écho !' (Duchampiana) 2, MAMCO, Geneva, Switzerland

Répertoire (Replay)'ce qu'il plait 2', MAMCO, Geneva, Switzerland

Ornament und Abastraktion, Foundation Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland

Trade-Waren, Wege und Werte im Welthandel Heute, Winterthur Foto Museum, Winterthur, Switzerland

Candice Breitz, Claude Closky, Elaine Sturtevant, Martin Walde, Erwin Wurm, Gallery Mezanin, Vienna, Austria

La Bretagne Collectionne l'Art de notre Temps, les 20 ans du Frac

Bretagne/Mélange, Domaine de Kerguehennec , Centre d'Art Contemporain, Bignan, France

Georg Karl Fine Arts, Vienna, Austria



Protest & Survive, White Chapel, London, UK

Copy Right/Copy Wrong, Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, France

Les 100 sourires de Mona Lisa, Tokyo, Japan



Original. Echt/Falsch, Neues Museum, Bremen, Germany

Air de Paris, Paris, France

Werke aus der Sammlung FER, Froelich, Graesslin, Waishaupt, ZMK, Karlsrube, Germany

À propos de Duchamps, Curt Marcus Gallery , New York, USA

Patchwork in progress 5 'Oh cet écho !' (Duchampiana), MAMCO, Geneva, Switzerland

Weg aus dem Bild, Georg Karl Fine Arts, Vienna, Austria



Das Jahrhundert der Kunslerischen Freiheit, Wiener Sezession, Vienna, Austria

Sequence, Edition Schellmann Munich, New York)

Upfreshing Wind from Changing Directions, Weimar Neues Museum, Weimar, Germany

Painting Now and Forever, Pat Hearn Gallery, New York, USA

One Hundred years of Artistic Freedom, City Art Musem, Helsinki, Finland

Auffrischender Wind aux weschselnden Richtungn. Internationale Avantgarde seit 1960. Die Sammlung Paul Maenz, Neues Museum, Weimar, Germany



Galerie von Lintel, Munich, Germany

From One Point to Another, L'Atelier Soardi, Nice, France

Sous le manteau, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, France



Magritte, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, Canada

Kunstsammlung Nordhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Germany

La Criée, Centre d'Art, Rennes, France

L'Art du Plastique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France

Museum der Kultur der Welt, Berlin, Germany

Now/Here, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaeck, Denmark

Shift, Neue Gesellschaft fur Bildende kunst, Berlin, Germany



MAMCO, Genève, Switzerland

Qui est Libre?, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Rouen, France

Saut dans le vide, Maison Centrale des artistes ThDKh, Moscow, Russia

Zentrum Paris, Art Frankfurt 94, Frankfurt, Germany



Zentrum Paris, Kunsthalle Ritter, Klagenfurt, Austria

Drawings 30th Anniversary Exhibitions, Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, USA



Galerie Sylvana Lorenz, Paris, France

Galerie Six Friederich, Munich, Germany

Objects for an ideal home, Serpentine Gallery, London, UK



Charade of Mastery, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA

Denk-Bilder, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstifstun, Munich, Heydt-Museum, Wuppertal, Germany

Aspect de l'art du XXéme siécle, Abbaye Saint André, Meymac, France

(Art), California State University Fullerton, California, USA

Hybrid Abstraction, Bennington College, Vermont, USA

Das Goldene Zeitalter, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart, Germany



Permanent Collection, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, USA

Charade of Mastery. Deciphering Modenism in the Contemporary Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA

Spellbound, Mark Richard Gallery, New York, USA



Prospect 89, Frankfurter Kunstverein, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

D&S Ausstellung, Kunstverein,  Hamburg, Germany

A Decade of Drawing, Daniel Weinberg Gallery, Los Angeles, USA

The silent Baroque, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg, Austria



Complexity &Contradiction, Scott Hanson Gallery, New York, USA

Vraiment Faux, Fondation Cartier (Jouy-en-Josas),

Hommage-Demontage, Neue Galerie Sammlung Ludwig (Aachen), WIlhem-

Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen, Stadtisches Museum Gelsenkirchen, Germany

Hedendaage Kunst

Provinciaal Museum, Hasselt, Belgium

Museum Moderner Kunst, Vienna, Austria



st bienal internacional de Pintura au Museo de Arte Moderno, Cuenca, Spain

Glittering Prize, Stux Gallery, New York, USA

Post-Abstract Abstraction, Adrich Museum, Ridgefield, USA



Investigations, McIntosh/Drysdale Gallery, Washington, USA

Production Re-Production, Galerie 345, New York, USA



The Art of Appropriation, Alternative Museum, New York, USA



Art in the Mirror, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA



Institute Of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Public and private collections

Vienna, Secession

MAMCO, Geneva

Weimar Neues Museum, Weimar

MOCA Los, Angeles

ARC, Paris

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam

ZKM, Karlsruhe

DAP, Paris

FRAC, Bretagne

MMK, Museum Fur Moderna Kunst, Frankfurt

Sintra Museum of Modern Art, Sintra

Musée d'Art Moderne de la ville de Paris

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis

Pinault Foundation

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City